Vishal Ghorse
Department of Industrial Engineering, Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management,
Nagpur, (India).
Jagdish Kene
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering and Department of Industrial
Engineering, Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management, Nagpur, (India).
Rakshal Agrawal
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering and Department of Industrial
Engineering, Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management, Nagpur, (India).
Reception: 01/10/2022 Acceptance: 16/10/2022 Publication: 29/12/2022
Suggested citation:
Ghorse, V., Kene, J., y Agrawal, R. (2022). Arduino based insect & rodent repeller for living & working spaces.
3C Tecnología. Glosas de innovación aplicadas a la pyme, 11(2), 81-88.
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Ed. 42 Vol. 11 N.º 2 August - December 2022
With so many amazing things going on in the world of science and technology, we still don't have an
effective solution to ward off pests electronically. Pesticides, insecticides and other repellents are toxic
and dangerous to human health. Electronic Pest Repellent (EPR) is a new technology that is cheap,
environmentally friendly, effective and poses no risk to humans. Electronic pest repellents are
electronic devices that are capable of producing sounds in the ultrasonic frequency range that are
inaudible to the human ear but are audible to pests such as rodents, birds and insects. Sounds of this
frequency (10-100 kHz) are annoying to pests and leave the place due to severe hearing impairment.
The device can be used by the general public to repel mosquitoes, insects, cockroaches and by farmers
to repel rodents, insects and other pests.
Arduino, Insects, Repellent, Ultrasound, Variable Frequency.
3C Tecnología. Glosas de innovación aplicadas a la pyme. ISSN: 2254-4143
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As Humans, we are conditioned from childhood to fear insects, rodents, pests usually, from a negative
or traumatic experience with them in the past. Most of the time we choose from commercially
available solutions, like chemical sprays, dead traps, deterrents, fast acting poisons , electromagnetic
wave based repellents and many more. For a fact, they aren't as effective as they are advertised. And in
itself they are harmful by nature of substances used in them, which makes them not suitable to use at
home where toddlers are around. Therefore we aimed to design an electronic repeller which will use
ultrasounds of a wide range of frequencies to repel the common hazardous insects and rodents. As it is
a variable frequency repeller it makes the targeted insects and rodents to not adapt to the sounds which
is the case the traditional electronic repellers fails and makes them inefficient. by using high-frequency
pulsed sound waves to attack the pest's nervous system, and finally, the only way for the pest to
survive is to leave it. Odorless, non-toxic, smokeless, silent, no side effects on the human body. It can
be used continuously and is suitable for home and office use.
The authors of this paper [1] focus on the development of electronic composites to produce smarter,
safer and more effective alternatives to harmful repellants. This article provides detailed information
on ultrasonic pest repellers. This device produces variable ultrasonic frequencies that can repel, block
and disrupt the acoustic communication of pests and insects. The desired outcome of this device was
to reduce the use of pesticides and insecticides that pollute the soil and pose various environmental,
physical and health risks. With this in mind, these chemical fertilizers affect the food chain and all the
people who are part of the food chain. You can also interact with electronic repellers that use
electromagnetic and ultrasonic waves to repel insects such as mosquitoes, houseflies, and spiders. ,
insects, fleas and cockroaches. An ultrasonic pest control system repels, not kills, pests with multi-
frequency modulation alerts.
These high-intensity ultrasonic waves (25-65 KHz) are beyond the range of human hearing and
temporarily disturb most pests. These (in the case of rodents and insects) nervous sounds travel
directly to the brain and nervous system, causing abnormal behavior such as severe pain, discomfort,
agitation, and radiation sites. This device produces variable ultrasonic frequencies that repel, trap, and
block sound communication of pests and insects. By using the GSM module, the device can be
controlled from anywhere in the world and can be accessed worldwide. Additionally, the use of power
amplifiers, microcontrollers (Arduino UNO) and short diaphragms increase the operating range,
efficiency and area of
the device. With the help of BLE technology and its mesh networking
capabilities, the device can also be used to cover large areas in agriculture while increasing the
efficiency of the device. The biggest challenge with this device is reducing the use of pesticides and
pesticides. Pesticides and pesticides contaminate the soil and pose environmental, physical, and health
The author of this paper [2] presents a design concept for an automatic ultrasonic animal and insect
repellent, consisting of an ultrasonic sensor, a motion sensor, a GSM module and an Arduino Uno
board. Identify the sound of the pest by recording the ultrasonic signals emitted by the presence of
pests in the products. Then the presence of pests is detected by PIR motion sensors. When both
Arduino Uno board sensors confirm the presence of pests, an ultrasonic repeller is activated to drive
animals and insects out of the area. A message is sent through the GSM module and farmers are ready
to protect themselves with pesticides or pesticides depending on the crop. This project can also be
utilized in agricultural functions like cattle monitoring as well.
In this paper [3] Experimental observations have shown that bird activity is extreme early in the
morning and decreases regularly throughout the day. Therefore, the field test was four times from 5 am
to 8 am and from 5 pm to 6 pm. The test was conducted during both wheat and rice harvest after corn
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had been planted in the field. The target bird species were pigeons (Spilopelia senegalensis), crows
(Corvus cornix), pigeons (Columba livia) and sparrows (Passer Domesticus). The flock averaged
dozens of mighty birds. For analysis Stepwise multiple linear regression models involving frequency
level, exposure time interval, and field to find the relationship between sound pressure level (SPL),
bird departure time, frequency level, exposure time interval, and field measurement distance was used.
Distance was measured as the explanatory variable, and (SPL) and bird flight time are considered
dependent variables. The regression model results showed a significant association between SPL, bird
departure time, and the explanatory variables. This can be inferred from the t-values and associated p-
values. The explanatory variables explained 88% and 93% of the variation in SPL and bird departure
times, indicating a high strength of the relationship between SPL and bird departure times and the
explanatory variables. By looking at the F-value and its p-value, they concluded that the model is valid
and that there is a correlation between SPL and bird departure times and explanatory variables.
In this work [4], a scheme was developed that works with fixed blocking frequencies around 26 kHz
and between 34 and 44 kHz. To ensure effective performance, the ultrasonic frequency of this
ultrasonic oscillator is continuously and automatically changed within a certain range. This was
accomplished by changing the clock pulse output of IC1 NE555 (used as a low frequency square wave
oscillator in the design) and Results were obtained from the tests performed on the device and from
the testers who used the device. The developed device operated within the specified insect repellent
frequencies. The results obtained from simulation and experiment , the waveforms obtained using an
oscilloscope in the lab were both square waves. When the device was placed in close proximity to a
subject (flies or mosquitoes), the device repelled them up to a distance of 3 meters. When placed
approximately 4 meters away from the subject, the subject showed no significant reaction. The system
was designed, built and tested satisfactorily and successfully executed. The system has been found to
be very effective, performing according to design specifications despite minor variations in readings.
This article [5] deals with a brief review of different ways and devices for repelling insects and rodents
in agricultural areas and poultry farms. A variety of manual techniques were used in the past, but
subsequent advances in electronics gradually led to their use in agriculture to increase yields. Three
controls were developed for the new system. The rat repellent works with your phone or a switch. Rats
are repelled by the ultrasonic range of frequency produced by the device. The frequency range varies
from 60 KHz to 85 KHz. The developed technology was tested on caged rats to see if it could affect
the organism. Varying the ultrasound over a frequency range of 60 to 85 kHz exhibited erratic
behavior in the rats, proving that the designed system helped repel dangerous rodents and pests from
poultry farms. The proposed prototype design allows the device to operate for up to 12-13 hours on a
fully charged battery. DTMF is the signal sent to the Arduino Uno by pressing a button on the phone’s
dial pad. The high and the low frequencies on the keys of the mobile phone keyboard produce two
different sounds.. The third control unit uses an LDR connected to an analog pin to detect day and
night and activate the night mode.
This paper [6] describes the design and testing of electronic jamming protection. The audio amplifier
circuit is designed to produce ultrasound in the frequency range up to 75-80 kHz. A suitable frequency
response is used to transmit these sound waves. This device is an effective alternative to pesticides
commonly used on farms and homes. Oscilloscope readings indicated that the generated signal was
within the repulsion frequency range of 30 to 50kHz of ultrasonic frequencies. ultrasonic signals for
different pest species tested in a series of 10 experiments were within the specified range. It was
determined to be five times more affordable than the insecticide propoxur, and that simulation and
experimental results were consistent within ±5% measurement uncertainty.
The device designed in this study [7] is an automated pest control tool specifically targeted at bird and
rodent pests. Control technology is implemented by listening to pests. The device developed is a
prototype for repelling rodent and bird pests in rice. In this prototype, two sensors (an ultrasonic
sensor and a PIR sensor) were used to detect pests. The dimensions of the prototype to be produced
are 40 cm wide and 50 cm long on a 1/100 scale. That means the prototype created could reach an area
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4 x 5 m with respect to the real area. The prototype is expected to develop into a large-scale tool for
direct installation and use by farmers and auto tow trucks. Repellent techniques are implemented by
making sounds that can stun pests It was hoped that this prototype could be developed into a larger
scale tool for direct installation and use by farmers.
[8] An acoustic deterrent that repels birds by emitting bird calls or ultrasonic waves.
To determine the
effectiveness and efficiency of ultrasonic restraint systems. Standard ultrasound equipment has been
tested on a variety of animal species. There is ample evidence that researchers have successfully
developed ultrasonic devices that repel birds, despite the ineffectiveness of commercial ultrasonic
devices as described above. Ezeonu et al. (2012) developed and tested an ultrasonic bird repellent.
Ultrasound was generated with varying frequencies between 15 kHz and 25 kHz. The waves were
amplified and radiated at high sound pressure levels from a solar-powered electronic device
manufactured on site.
The purpose of this paper [9] is to find an achievable way to reduce the impact of traffic on wildlife, a
priority for nature conservation. Roadsides are important refuges for small animals and excellent
hunting ground for hunters. This makes predators and prey vulnerable to vehicle collisions. Therefore,
measures aimed at preventing these animals from approaching the streets are necessary. Here, they test
the effectiveness of ultrasonic devices to keep rodents out of the way. We hypothesized that when
rodents are exposed to ultrasound, they move away from the device and track.
The author of this article [10] proposed such a system that would also be beneficial in agriculture and
households. This should also reduce the losses animals often cause. Here he looks at the Arduino code
and uploads it to his Arduino UNO board. The Arduino UNO board connects the board to an LCD
display, an ultrasonic sensor, and a DTMF decoder that detects animal frequencies and acts as a
repellent. Mode 1 transmits dog and cat frequencies (22 KHZ to 25 KHZ), and mode 2 transmits input
frequencies (31 KHZ to 44 KHZ) that repel flies and spiders. Therefore, when installed in these
locations, the system is equipped with an ultrasonic sensor and an LCD display that indicates the
selected mode of operation. Drive away animals based on the selected mode of operation.
The authors conducted a detailed review of alternative controls for house flies [11]. The house fly is
the most widespread commensal pest in the world. It rarely breeds indoors, but it does invade
buildings, causing problems and transmitting pathogens. Exclusion means keeping flies away from the
structure. Despite the best efforts, flies can invade the human environment. Therefore, air curtains,
fans, screened windows and doors are excluded. UV light traps attract and immobilize flies. The
window trap invites you to a device that catches flies. Adhesive tubes and tapes rely on the tendency
of flies to land on vertical lines and get stuck in the adhesive. Even low-tech fly swatters can play an
important role in getting rid of individual flies. Timely-release pyrethrin aerosol dispensers are
effective against flies trapped in small spaces. Poison Bait can only be used in urban environments.
This study [12] aims to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of automated tools that can repel
agricultural pests, especially rats and birds. The tool has a passive infrared-receiving sensor that
detects the presence of agricultural pests, and a servo motor activates and pulls a bell, making sounds
that scare away birds and rats. This mechanism is controlled by a microcontroller called the Arduino
ATmega 2560. This tool is an innovation from traditional technology, so it can easily solve farmers'
problems related to agricultural pests.
In the article [13], the author constructed an EMR-generated ultrasound in the frequency range of
20-38 kHz, propagating at an angle of 45° from the source and covering a large radius. These
ultrasound focused auditory stresses on mosquitoes either deactivate them or push them out of the
vicinity of the device. The device is based on the 555 timer IC and can be used by the public indoors
or outdoors to combat the mosquito threat, with an EMR (Electronic Mosquito Repellent) he turns off
for 12 seconds, in a famous mosquito hatchery Field experiments were conducted using human chow.
minute. Human prey felt the number of mosquitoes on different parts of the body. It was difficult to
determine whether ground gnats were of the same species. They turned on the EMR machine and
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watched for another 12 minutes. In the first 4 minutes, 8 mosquitoes landed on human food. In his last
eight minutes of his life, he saw a mosquito land on average every four minutes of his life. It was just
the two of him. Mosquito landing rates differ with and without EMR ON. This demonstrates the
ability of the EMR device to repel mosquitoes outdoors. Another experiment was conducted with two
subjects in a closed classroom. The first human bait was placed in the center of the classroom and the
second human bait was placed in each corner of the classroom. The results of these tests provided
clear evidence from field observations that this device impacted mosquito landing rates. investigated
(because location and environmental conditions can affect ultrasound transmission).
This paper [14] focuses on different pest control methods and also describes frequency variation
generation technology based on electronic pest control machines. Using the LM 380 in an audio power
amplifier circuit, we have designed a system capable of producing sound in the 75 kHz frequency
range. Loudspeakers of suitable frequency ranges are used to transmit these sound waves. E-Pest
Repellent is intelligently made with ANN (Artificial Neural Network ). ANNs are trained on data
collected from the literature to repel different types of pests. ANN output is the amplitude, frequency,
and duration of the signal to repel pests. It is said to be highly effective compared to simple E-pest
repellents.Comprehensive performance evaluations of e-pest repellents were conducted to determine
the effectiveness of the device against a variety of pests. and ANN has received training. Her trained
ANN will be used in the development of his intelligent E-Pest Repellent System. This device is
intended to repel small birds, mosquitoes, flies, moths, bats and other nocturnal insects, rodents and
birds in farm fields.
The above section details many of the available technologies. Each article discusses different
technologies and techniques for proving to be effective repellents. Such as the development of an
electronic repeller system in articles [1] [2] [4] [6] and his use of DTMF techniques in [5] [11]. This
allows GSM technology to complement existing EPR. Additionally, Powering them for long hours of
operation is a big challenge where some used batteries , some tried solar power and many solutions
for this situation are detailed in [9][11][12][13]. All the above techniques and technologies are
available separately ranging from cheaper solutions to more expensive ones but the scope of them
proving to repel, is limited to some specific rodents or insects mainly rats and mosquitoes. These can
be combined with each other by improving and working on the existing anomalies by completing
these challenges.
Acoustic sensors used in recent research include piezoelectric sensors, accelerometers, microphones,
and ultrasonic transducers that are used to detect and identify rodents & insects. The laser doppler
vibrometer is a modern sensor that is very useful for detecting and identifying insects.
4.1 Accelerometers - Accelerometers are acoustic sensors that sense vibrations and shocks to measure
environmental G-forces. It's a microchip-like device that gently but firmly attaches to the stems and
stems of plants. The signals recorded by the accelerator are sent as output signals to a wireless
computer for further analysis.
4.2 Piezoelectric sensors - Sensors that work on the principle of piezoelectricity. When the piezo disk
deforms, a voltage is generated. Crystals, like crystals, have the ability to conduct electricity. When the
crystal is subjected to an external force, it deforms and the negative and positive charges move within
the crystal, creating a voltage that helps identify pests. The core of a piezoelectric sensor consists of a
piezoelectric crystal that directly converts mechanical stress into electrical charge.
4.3 Acoustic Probes - Integrate acoustic sensors like accelerometers and piezoelectric sound sensors to
create acoustic probes. It is usually inserted into the area of the sound field under investigation. Soil,
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stored grain or wood. Known as the SP-1 probe, the portable device combines a specialized probe and
sensor manufactured by Acoustic Emission Consulting (AEC) to detect acoustic emissions produced
by burrowing insects and red weevil larvae. It consists of date palms for identification.
4.4 Microphone - a type of sound device that uses IA (Impact Acoustics) to evaluate the quality of
production. It helps to identify the damage of insects, scabs and buds on the seeds. It is a non-intrusive
and cost-effective alternative to laborious, time-consuming and expensive manual methods.
4.5 Ultrasonic Transducers -An ultrasonic transducer is a system capable of producing and receiving
ultrasonic vibrations. This converter consists of a wear plate, an active element and a back. Active
elements are piezoelectric or single crystal materials that convert electrical energy into ultrasonic
energy. It then recovers the ultrasonic energy and converts it into electrical energy.
4.6 Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) -. Compared to other contact methods for vibration
measurements, LDV has the advantage that interference between sensor and sample is actively
avoided. We have developed a vibration sensor that can classify flying insect species based on
flapping frequency. The sensor consists of a laser light source and a phototransistor connected to an
electronic gain and filter board, used as a laser beam to measure the beating frequency of flying
insects. When a wing hits a laser beam in flight, the light is partially trapped, creating small light
fluctuations. These changes were detected by a phototransistor. As a result, the sensor was able to
distinguish between the beneficial species and the species two harmful mosquitoes, yellow fever
mosquito and west nile fever, with accuracies ranging from 70.69% to 91.3%.
In this proposed technology, smart gadgets are designed to keep rodents away from your home and
living spaces around your home. Passive infrared sensors are used to detect the presence of people
when entering a room. After a successful detection, the tweeter turns off and starts emitting variable
frequencies only when the room is empty. Insects and rodents such as cockroaches, mice and
mosquitoes are very annoying when they are there, so prevent them from entering the room. That
space not only protects the room from the most common pests, but also minimizes exposure to
ultrasound, keeping teenagers and toddlers away from high-frequency sounds that can affect their
age. . prefer. Long lasting with solar panel and rechargeable DC battery unit. Ultrasonic tweeters can
produce frequencies between 10 and 65 kHz, which is enough to keep pesky insects and rodents away.
Currently, prevention coverage is limited to one room, and costs increase with each additional room
Acoustic devices have proven highly effective in trapping, identifying, detecting, and behaviorally
manipulating pest species. Acoustic devices have been used since the 1900s, but the use of sonic
devices in pest control remains limited and untapped, especially in the field. A major reason for the
lack of research on acoustic technology in pest control is the fact that acoustic technology is very
expensive compared to other available alternatives. However, advances in technology are definitely
developing devices that are cheaper and easier to use. Moreover, the latest technology has the potential
to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of these devices. It is generally accepted that certain
aspects of insect communication remain undiscovered, and many useful potential applications of
acoustics in pest control await investigation. A fully fact-based IPM (Integrated Pest Management)
strategy for the ecological control of notorious vertebrate, bird, forest, terrestrial and other pests
through preserved plants. Acoustics should be viewed as an effective tool.
SHAIKH, AAYUSHA SHINGAVI “Smart Ultrasonic Variable Frequency Pest Repeller”
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with Arduino ATmega2560 based on sound displacement technique S R Ningsih”, IOP Conf.
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MIRA & NEFTALÍ SILLERO, “Ultrasonic device effectiveness in keeping rodents off the
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[10] NANCY C. HINKLE AND JEROME A. HOGSETTE , “A Review of Alternative Controls for
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