3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
Asma Abdul Rahim Chang
Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, (Pakistan).
E-mail: asma.rahim@jinnah.edu ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8477-4561
Jawaid A. Qureshi
Shaheed Zulkar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science & Technology (SZABIST), (Pakistan).
E-mail: jawaid.qureshi@szabist.edu.pk ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6380-5402
Shehla Najib
Shaheed Zulkar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science & Technology (SZABIST), (Pakistan).
E-mail: shehlanajib@szabist.edu.pk ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1386-0002
Faryal Salman
Institute of Business & Health Management, Dow University, (Pakistan).
E-mail: faryal.salman@duhs.edu.pk ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8477-4561
Citación sugerida:
Chang, A. A. R., Qureshi, J. A., Najib, S., y Salman, F. (2021). Learning the Chinioti way: exploring the legacy of
a family business community leaders’ success based on the entrepreneurial mindset and values of Chinioti Sheikhs.
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico, 10(3), 109-135. https://doi.org/10.17993/3cemp.2021.100347.109-135
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
The Chinioti Sheikh community ranks among the most successful business communities in Pakistan,
yet literature is almost barren of any study that aims to understand the success model of such business
communities in the country. The purpose of this paper is twofold: one is to understand the factors that
make Chinioti Sheikhs a successful business community in Pakistan and second is to comprehend the
role of entrepreneurial mindset and values in the contribution of entrepreneurial success for Chinioti
Sheikhs in particular and other entrepreneurs in general. The study is qualitative in nature and utilizes
two research methods i.e., cumulative case study and focus group for the purpose of triangulation and
profound understanding. The study takes help of the book 'Kamyab Log' for analyzing cases of Chinioti
Sheikh entrepreneurs and in the second phase of research, a focus group is conducted of subject experts
and entrepreneurs. The ndings reveal that there are a number of factors that inuence success of
a venture. For Chinioti Sheikhs, these factors are a combination of collective traits shared among all
members of community as well as individual traits, which include a value-infused personality traits plus
entrepreneurial mindset of that individual entrepreneur.
Family Business Leaders, Entrepreneurial Mindset, Entrepreneurial Values, Chinioti Sheikhs.
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
While Pakistan has witnessed a surge in entrepreneurial activities only recently, there are some business
communities that have existed even before the period of partition (Akbar, 2017). The Chinioti Sheikh
community is one of such communities. The indigenous literature, however, is almost barren of any
studies to understand the success model of such business communities in the country. The purpose of
this paper is twofold: one is to understand the factors that make Chinioti Sheikhs a successful business
community in Pakistan and second is to comprehend the role of entrepreneurial mindset as well as values
in the contribution of entrepreneurial success for Chinioti Sheikhs in particular and other entrepreneurs
in general.
Within the subject of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial mindset is a realm that only a few have attempted
to excavate (Haynie et al., 2010; Neneh, 2012). Similarly, while one nds several studies on critical
success factors of entrepreneurs (Al-Tit et al., 2019; Angel et al., 2018; Rotter, 1975; Staniewski & Awruk,
2019), such studies have been done in isolation and only few have attempted to link entrepreneurial
mindset with entrepreneurial success. The question remains: what is the role of entrepreneurial mindset
in success of a venture? And do all entrepreneurs have an entrepreneurial mindset? Scholars seem
to disagree (Bosman & Fernhaber, 2018). Not all entrepreneurs are entrepreneurial and perhaps, this
explains why some choose to forgo the path of entrepreneurship after taking a few strides while others
persist even in the face of failure. Put dierently: not all entrepreneurs have the same entrepreneurial
mindset. Thus, the authors propose that entrepreneurial mindset is one of the qualities that denes a
successful entrepreneur. Similarly, morality and ethical values play an important part in driving business
success (Vadastreanu et al., 2015). Yet, we witness cases of fraudulent yet 'successful' entrepreneurs on
daily basis, which begs the question: is morality a driver of success?
The study takes an exploratory qualitative voyage to understand how entrepreneurial mindset and
moral values collaborate to drive business success. The study contributes to the existing literature by
rendering a framework for entrepreneurial success where entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurial
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
values are interweaved to form a value-based success model. Essentially, the study asked two overarching
research questions: a) What are the factors that drive success for Chinioti Sheikh entrepreneurs? b) In
a larger context, what is the role of entrepreneurial mindset as well as moral and ethical values in the
entrepreneurial success for Chinioti Sheikhs in particular and other entrepreneurs in general?
One of the questions that scholars working on entrepreneurship have entertained is what makes
entrepreneurs entrepreneurial? While scholars like McClleland (1965) brought forth the notion that it
is the personality traits that distinguish and dene entrepreneurs from the mainstream, this proposition
did not explain why some entrepreneurs failed to identify an opportunity and others excelled (Naumann,
2017). Thus, scholars shifted their attention towards cognition and posited that it is actually the
entrepreneurial mindset that dierentiates entrepreneurs from within the entrepreneurial community.
Hence, it is the EM which is a dening element for a successful entrepreneur. The entrepreneurial
mindset is dened as a 'growth-oriented perspective' that allows an entrepreneur to practice qualities
such as creativity and innovation even in face of uncertainty (Ireland et al., 2003). It is also dened as the
inclination to "discover, evaluate and exploit opportunities" (Bosman & Fernhaber, 2018, p. 13).
Others extended the denition to add that an entrepreneur with entrepreneurial mindset has the ability
to identify opportunities even in unforeseeable circumstances because of their cognitive capacity that aids
them to render meaning to chunks of unstructured events. McGrath and MacMillan (2000) dened ve
qualities of an entrepreneur with entrepreneurial mindset: a) the keenness to search for new prospects;
b) the religious chase after the prospect identied; c) the ability to seek out and chase after only the best
prospects out of many; d) the emphasis on execution more than planning; and e) the tendency to direct
the eorts of others towards entrepreneur's desired interest.
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The trait of focusing more on execution than planning is parallel to the denition of an eectual
entrepreneur given by Sarasvathy (2004). Thus, it can be said that the entrepreneur with an entrepreneurial
mindset is more of an eectual entrepreneur than causal. While some scholars have attempted to nd the
root cause of an entrepreneurial mindset (Haynie et al., 2010), others such as Ireland et al. (2003) posited
that entrepreneurial mindset, along with other characteristics such as creativity, cultural orientation and
eective management of resources all contribute in the development of strategic entrepreneurship. They
proposed that entrepreneurial mindset stresses on creation of value and identication of opportunities.
Some authors found that for established entrepreneurial rms such as, small and medium enterprises
(SMEs), the elements of eectuation (i.e., pursuing opportunities without much planning and forecasting)
and causation (i.e., pursuing opportunities after substantial planning or strategy and forecasting) theories
can be combined (Reyes-Mercado & Verma, 2020; Shirokova et al., 2021; Vanderstraeten et al., 2020).
Many of them started without much planning and forecasting, but they applied such tools after a track
record of success.
In everyday business situation, entrepreneurs face controversial or ethical dilemmas and make moral
or immoral decisions (Bryant, 2009). In this regard, their personal values and moral awareness are two
critical factors that regulate their decisions. Vadastreanu et al. (2015) dened twelve ethical rules that any
business must follow in order to maintain a good reputation in the market. These twelve principles are: 1)
honesty; 2) integrity; 3) keeping promises; 4) loyalty; 5) correctness; 6) care; 7) respect for others; 8) respect
the law; 9) concern for excellence; 10) leadership; 11) reputation and morale; and 12) responsibility.
Elucidating the 12 principles, the scholars suggest that businesses must establish truthfulness with all
their stakeholders. They must remain loyal to their stakeholders such as employees and customers and
practice correctness i.e., the endeavor to remain fair and just in all matters. Furthermore, ethical rms
exercise care and compassion and strive for betterment of their stakeholders. They respect others and
respect the law. They are continuously striving for excellence in all their duties and responsibilities. They
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
prove to be worthy leaders by being role models through their own ethical actions. Lastly, they take
personal responsibility for their own actions and try to protect others from their mistakes.
A disarray is usually observed when trying to dene an indicator that best denes success. An assortment
of varying indicators related to nancial and non-nancial metrics is seen (Francis, 2016). Some dene
wealth as key indicator (McMullen & Shepherd, 2006) while others link it to non-nancial indicators.
Many scholars have tied entrepreneurial success to psychological factors such as personal satisfaction
(Chong, 2012), high self-ecacy (Chen et al., 1998), locus of control and need for achievement (Chell,
2008; McClelland, 1965). Some studies have found that entrepreneurs with a persistent mindset tend to
be visionary leaders, even if they come from non-family businesses (Qureshi et al., 2018).
Other studies report that family businesses have relatively lesser risk of failure as they are aware of the
tricks of trade and business (Qureshi et al., 2018). Coming from entrepreneurial family background or
having strong family support has found itself a prominent place in the list of entrepreneurial success
factors (Aldrich & Cli, 2003; Lindquist et al., 2015; Luca & Robu, 2016). Culture has also been identied
as one of the domineering factors (Hayton et al., 2002; Laužikas & Mokšeckienė, 2013). A study in
Malaysia emphasized the signicance of religious values such as honesty and need to fulll obligations
(Makhbul & Hasun, 2011). Zulkii and Rosli (2013) asserted that religiosity has a moderating role in the
entrepreneurial success. It can be concluded that there is not a single factor but rather, a combination of
factors that contribute to the success of entrepreneurial venture (Thien, 2016).
The Chinioti Sheikhs are among the top ranked communities known in Pakistan for their entrepreneurial
inclination. Although there is scant research available on them, a remarkable work has been done to
extract entrepreneurial traits of three communities i.e., Memon, Chinioti, and Delhi Saudagar (Javaid
et al., 2019). The results of their ndings indicate that entrepreneurs of these three communities are
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
characterized by strong principles such as honesty and humility, a rm belief in their faith, eagerness
for growth, and good relations with employees as well as clients, among others. They are risk-takers and
perseverant. These individuals have a strong family network and support; they allow young minds into
the business early on and guide them to become better business-oriented. Commitment, credibility of
their business and family name, and honoring their words is most important to them.
The study operates under constructivist paradigm and inductive approach. Two qualitative techniques
were used i.e., cumulative case study approach and focus group. For the cumulative cases, the authors
randomly selected sixteen published cases of successful entrepreneurs from the book 'Kamyab Log
(Successful People)' authored by Dr. Amjad Saqib. The cases were written using personal interviews with
the entrepreneurs from Chiniot Sheikh community of Pakistan (Saqib, 2016). Next, focus group of seven
participants was conducted in two phases: one face-to-face and other online.
The questions for the focus group revolved around the three key themes i.e., entrepreneurial mindset,
entrepreneur's moral and ethical values, and factors of success. Thus, the protocol comprised of
questions that probed the participants to describe the characteristics of a successful entrepreneur; for
example, and their experiences and perceptions about the entrepreneurs of Chinioti Sheikh community.
Non-probability purposive sampling was used to select the participants, the criteria being that they were
subject experts of entrepreneurship or were entrepreneurs themselves. The interview process ended at
saturation point where the authors saw no new information emerging from probing (Bashir et al., 2017;
Creswell et al., 2006).
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A total of sixteen cases were analyzed and treated with cycle coding to extract themes and patterns
related to entrepreneurial success. A prole of the cases analyzed from the book 'Kamyab Log' is given
in Table 1. The cases contained interviews of the protagonists as well as their partners such as brothers
or sons working alongside which have also been analyzed; however, the names are copied in the table as
given in the book for reader's convenience.
Table 1. Prole Summary of Cases Analyzed.
Sr # Name Company Name / Group Page Number in Book
1 S. M. Muneer Din Group 67
2 S. M. Naseer Din Group 73
3 Mian Muhammad Abdullah Sapphire Group 83
4 Mian Mehboob Iqbal Tata Tata Group 99
5 Mian Inaam Ilaahi Nagina Group 121
6 Mian Ahmed Kamal Kamal Group 129
7 Javed Iqbal Wahra Mayfair Group 155
8 Sheikh Muhammad Saleem MIMA Group 169
9 Ahsan Saleem Crescent Group 183
10 Mian Muneer Manoo Olympia Group 189
11 Jahangir Monoo Manoo Group 201
12 Mian Tariq Nisar; Anjum Nisar ATS Group 217
13 Qaiser Ahmed Sheikh Qaiser LG Petrochemical Pvt Ltd 225
14 Mian Muhammad Anwar Crescent Group 247
15 Inaam Ilahi Asar Hijaz Hospital 261
Fowad Mukhtar Ahmed, Fazal Ahmed Sheikh,
Faisal Mukhtar Ahmed
Fatima Group 267
Source: own elaboration.
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Carrying out a line-by-line coding, a total of twenty-ve themes were extracted (appended in Appendix
A), which were then categorized and reorganized to club together similar themes. A nal list of themes
is available with the authors as an Appendix.
Due to availability issue of participants at one point in time, the focus group had to be divided into two
mini focus groups. The participants were entrepreneurs and operated their own businesses such as in
case of participants NS, MK and SS, or were faculty members teaching entrepreneurial courses, or both
in case of participant EZ. Two of the female participants had an MS degree in Management Sciences
while one male participant was a PhD holder. Two male entrepreneurs both had an MBA degree and
had been classmates.
While the focus group discussion upheld the ndings from case study, it added a refreshing touch to some
aspects of entrepreneurship that the book had overlooked. For example, the book was absent of the
issues such as extortion and blackmailing faced by entrepreneurs by which they are forced to forgo their
ethical principles and give money to secure their businesses.
While the case study mainly focused on the Chinioti Sheikh community, the focus group centered on
general characteristics of community entrepreneurs while adding new insights into the study. Both
methods reported some common personality traits of entrepreneurs such as perseverance. While
case study accentuated the down-to-earth attitude of Chinioti Sheikh entrepreneurs, the focus group
highlighted the notion that entrepreneurs are usually aggressive when pursuing their business ideas
which aids them amid criticisms during execution. Likewise, while the case study identied the risk-
taking attitude of entrepreneurs, the focus group discussion emphasized on the customary practice of
entrepreneurs to take calculated risks. Both methods acknowledged the fact that entrepreneurs from
family businesses possess a certain set of traits that are shared by all members.
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
The concept of entrepreneurial mindset occupied a notable position in both methods. While the case
study identied various elements of entrepreneurial mindset through real-time accounts and examples
of successful entrepreneurs from the Chinioti Sheikh community, the focus group discussion centered on
the denition and composition of factors that make up an entrepreneurial mindset. Both aspects, thus
combined to shape a profound understanding of the concept.
The case study reected on the philanthropic activities of Chinioti Sheikh entrepreneurs as well as the
reasons for going into philanthropy in detail; the focus group discussion, however, did not touch upon
this aspect much. The case study was brimming with examples of morality of the Chinioti Sheikh
entrepreneurs and recognized it as a necessary pre-requisite of doing business whereas the focus group
brought into the limelight the practical issues related to practicing ethical and moral values such as being
compelled to pay bribe and extortion money in order to sustain their business while also accentuating on
the customer-centric values more than fullling legal obligations. In all cases, it was established through
both focus group and case study method that in the present day of social media and video-recording
feature available in every cell phone, an unethical entrepreneur doesn't have a long-term survival.
Lastly, the case study accredited several factors of success, ranging from divine intervention and help
from God to earning prayers and well wishes of their family members as well as those who beneted
from their service and charities. The focus group discussion while cognizant of these factors, brought in
the element of luck, thus emphasizing that all factors being constant, luck plays a major role in driving
a business to success. Even though the book does not explicitly recognize this factor, one sees several
examples throughout the cases where the entrepreneurs luckily hit upon a jackpot such as the case
of those who migrated to Pakistan after independence and found a huge playing eld left vacant for
investment. Hence, one can say that both research methods complemented one another in enriching the
understanding of the topic under study.
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In the light of the ndings reported above, a conceptual framework is developed. The framework is
dened along a continuum of collective and individual traits and encompasses a number of elements
derived from the ndings which piece together to form a successful venture in general and a Chinioti
business model in particular. The elements on the top form universal traits i.e., most of the Chinioti
families have these factors in common. As the framework travels downwards, the traits begin to get
individually customized to entrepreneur's own strategies, actions and personality traits. Each element of
the framework is elaborated below in accordance to their levels.
On the topmost of the framework is the element Family Traits i.e., the qualities and habits of Chinioti
Sheikhs such as unity in family, leadership skills and preference for entrepreneurship over job.
While personality traits dene an entrepreneur's overall persona, the Chinioti Sheikh community
sustain some shared qualities that are in turn, inherent in their individual personalities. These include
a respect for family values and traditions; support for community members; unity in family; and a
common structure of apprenticeship. Keeping true to their practice of handing business over to younger
generation early on, the apprenticeship system usually includes a bottom-up one year training program
where the apprentice is sent to business premises immediately after graduating or on his/her eighteenth
birthday. There, they start o the training by spending each month in dierent functional departments
for one year before moving up the executive ladder. In some cases, the son is asked to spend a month
on the gate to understand the activities of the business such as logistics and shipping; or spend a certain
amount in a bazaar to understand the market. Other family traits include strong patriotic sentiments;
the inclination to give back to their community as well as the country; spending sparingly and staying
grounded. The community believes strongly in hard work and have inbuilt leadership skills.
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
While these traits seem to be associated exclusively to Chinioti Sheikh entrepreneurs, one commonly
witnesses that most family rms share a common set of characteristics (Kellermanns et al., 2012). For
example, as indicated by a participant, NS regarding the Memon community, they also share some
business habits that can be solely attributed to them.
“They are similar to Chiniotis in quite a deal but they know more about controlling cost. And most
interestingly they are ready to do business on very minimal prot margins, which other people do not
consider. They try to sell huge quantities rather than making maximum prot by selling few units.”
The level two encompasses two broad elements: Philosophies and Philanthropy. These are again universal
traits with minimal variations in Chinioti entrepreneurs.
It was noted during the analysis that every entrepreneur is driven by a certain philosophy i.e., a belief
or an approach towards his or her business that trickles down to shape principles and in turn, strategies
and actions. Some of these beliefs are religious such as success is an endowment of God; or that success
comes to only those who adhere to the rules set by God. Others are related to economics such as the
importance of saving one's wealth for rainy days. For others yet, their business philosophies revolve
around values such as credibility as in case of Mian Muhammad Anwer (Crescent Group) who believed
that wealth ultimately leaves a person; yet reputation lingers but if that is gone, it never returns. Whatever
the philosophy, a careful examination reveals that the strategies and actions of an entrepreneurs are
reection of their business philosophies.
The second element of family traits contains philanthropy. Although the Chiniotis consider themselves
way behind in giving compared to other business communities like Memons, a quality that is again a
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
manifestation of their humble attitude; they are very generous and regularly engage in philanthropic
activities such as building a mosque or a healthcare facility. Entrusted with the obligation to give back
to their community, they pay huge sums of money in charity and Zakat (an Islamic tax given by rich to
poor) in addition to other activities such as forming non-prot organizations to bring a positive change
in the society.
A probable reason for their immense interest in serving other people is mirrored in an observation made
by Ahsan Saleem (Crescent Group) who asserted, "wealth loses its lust after a certain period of time.
Then it has to be earned for others."
Philosophies and Philanthropy trickle down into Business Rules/Principles and Business Model.
Although almost all Chinioti Sheikh entrepreneurs have communal business rules and business model,
both of these elements dier in terms of founder's individual ideas as well as the organizational culture
of that business group, hence, the reason for being located at the midway of the continuum.
Inspired by the business philosophies, these are the rules of the game that are typically set by the elders
of the family and include guidelines for doing business that the next generation obligates itself to abide
by. Some of these include having a constant diversity in business; a preference for change and avoiding
the status quo; an environment of continuous learning where the entrepreneurs must keep themselves
updated with the latest tools and technology; spending frugally; playing a fair competition with rivals;
hard work; and cherishing values such as honesty and credibility; trustworthiness and transparency
among partners; in addition to staying within the limits of law; avoiding illegal sources of income and
belief in God.
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In addition to business principles, each family business follows a certain business model. This model
encompasses a framework on how to structure their business setup. The business model of Chinioti
Sheikhs typically stands on four pillars: a) delegation (of authority and power to subordinates), b)
decentralization (sharing decision-making authority with individual units), c) diversication (of business
to tap emerging opportunities), and d) stakeholders’ interests (concerns and priorities for businesses).
Although the rst three factors are given utmost priority, a business augments to a status of worship in
their view when the fourth pillar is added.
The lowest level contains two broad elements which are Personal Traits and Entrepreneurial Mindset.
Once again, while entrepreneurs share a common set of personality traits, it is the combination of both
personality traits as well as entrepreneurial mindset that dene the overall persona of a business.
A close examination of the qualities discussed during focus group as well as observed in the case study
reveal that the personal qualities can be further categorized into sub-categories, i.e., personal traits and
behavioral traits. PERSONAL TRAITS
Consistent with the trait theories (Schumpeter, 1934), all the entrepreneurs analyzed seem to have a
similar set of personality traits; such as exibility and optimism. A character sketch of Chinioti Sheikhs
reveals traits such as humility and humbleness, staying grounded and leading a simple lifestyle. Although
a major chunk of their later generations began to prefer a luxurious lifestyle, they still avoid excessive
pomp and show-o as one of their elders advised them: "Business must be done in silence and backdrop
and always away from fame".
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All the entrepreneurs from the case analysis are strong followers of religion and believe in values such as
honesty, trustworthiness, keeping promises, and earning a Halal (i.e., permissible and/or legal in Islam)
income. Applying these traits to entrepreneurs in general, a similar pattern is found: passion and a strong
belief system, whether it is an entity like God, a role model or their own selves. They are perseverant in
achieving their goals and have the ability to get back on their feet after facing a loss. BEHAVIORAL TRAITS
A common aspect of behavioral trait found in all Chinioti entrepreneurs was the habit of travelling far
and wide to search for work. This aspect of migration or traveling is a manifestation of their risk-taking
behavior and the propensity towards stepping out of their comfort zone. Another trait found common
in all entrepreneurs is that they are people oriented; they take help of their community members in
case of Chinioti Sheikhs or their friends and family in general. They are opportunists and go where the
opportunity leads them. They are innovative and experimental; and are aware of their target market as
well as their competitors.
Having been born and raised in a business environment where they grow up to witness discussion related
to business, business understanding and acumen becomes an innate quality for many Chinioti Sheikh
community members. As in their own words, "business is our second nature." There are many aspects
of EM that could be easily identied from the case analysis and attributed to a successful entrepreneur
in general from the focus group. For example, when the authors inquired participants what they perceive
about EM in the focus group, a series of varying opinions came out which dened and set the composition
of entrepreneurial mindset. Some believed that the entrepreneurial mindset was a pre-condition of
starting a business; an attitude or a way of approaching opportunities around.
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A further elaboration of this was that it was a childlike approach of an entrepreneur towards his goal e.g.,
the nonchalant and fearless attitude when the child climbs a tree and doesn't look down. It is the ability
to focus on entrepreneur's aordable loss rather than prots and their ability to utilize their resources
eectively. A true entrepreneur, in their view, is one who doesn't yearn immediate gratication but rather,
has a long-term vision and the ability to foresee what others miss. In the light of the points raised above
as well as the ones extracted from case study, one can assume that entrepreneurial mindset includes the
attributes of opportunity orientation, strategic focus, foresightedness, and innovativeness.
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework.
Source: own elaboration.
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
The ndings from the case study and the focus group embody the characteristics and the qualities of a
successful entrepreneur, the evidences of which are found consistent with the previous studies. The fact
that family entrepreneurs and more particularly community entrepreneurs are raised in a certain way
coincides with many studies (Hamilton, 2011; Javaid et al., 2019). Specically, amongst the practices
of entrepreneurs from the Chinioti Sheikh community, also concurrent with the ndings of Javaid
et al. (2017), one can see that a similar entrepreneurial mindset and personication exists across all
entrepreneurs in general.
For example, the study of Chang (2020) also report the system of apprenticeship known as entrepreneurial
bridging in successful family rm entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the business rules set by the Chinioti
entrepreneurs goes in hand with the twelve ethical rules described by Vadastreanu et al. (2015) that a
business must comply in order to sustain their credibility in the market. Hence, one sees that they uphold
values such as honesty and integrity, in addition to keeping promises, expressing respect to law as well
as society and giving back to their community; thereby retaining a credible position in the market and
among their customers as well as suppliers. Likewise, the personication of an entrepreneur once again
arms the ndings from the literature.
The personal and the behavioral traits reported in the ndings altogether depict an ideal list of
characteristics that an entrepreneur typically possesses and while Gartner (1988) criticized the practice
of trying to measure personality traits of an entrepreneur, it is empirically proven that an entrepreneur's
personality traits inuence the performance of their venture (Zhang & Bruning, 2011). The trait of
perseverance and determination also arms a previous study of Chang (2017) who found through
personal interviews with successful entrepreneurs that all her participants cherished and advocated these
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
On the other hand, while it is conveniently assumed that an entrepreneur is a risk-taker, we found evidences
from the ndings that the Chinioti Sheikh entrepreneurs as well as others believe in taking calculated
risks, a nding underlined by Chell (2008). Similarly, a common characteristic found in all Chinioti
Sheikh entrepreneurs was that they started small; thus, most of their characteristics corresponded with
three out of ve principles of eectuation (Sarasvathy, 2001), i.e., bird in hand (in terms of starting with
their means), aordable loss (in terms of taking calculated risk), and crazy quilt (forming partnerships and
taking help from community members). However, sometimes when they explore a lucrative opportunity,
they diversify their family business (called lemonade principle) and start a new venture (called pilot in the
plane) in eectuation theory, which provide them new means and new goals.
The attributes of an entrepreneurial mindset raised during the discussion as well as dug out from the
case analysis all accord to eectuation theory and model found in literature (Qureshi et al., 2016). Thus,
one saw that it is a growth-oriented perspective since a successful entrepreneur hates stagnation or lack
of growth and is actively engaged in seeking opportunities to expand his or her venture. The successful
cases of Chinioti Sheikh entrepreneurs also resonate with the fact that it is entrepreneurial mindset
indeed which is a function of entrepreneurial success.
The eagerness of the Chinioti Sheikh entrepreneurs in philanthropic activities also resonates with the
phenomenon of entrepreneurial philanthropy (Harvey et al., 2011) who dene the term as an entrepreneur's
desire to tackle social issues through active involvement and investment of their wealth, time and eort.
A signicant addition to this links entrepreneurial success to entrepreneurial philanthropy, which using
the denition of success as an accumulation of signicant wealth or prots from their business, suggests
that such successful entrepreneurs when engage in philanthropic activities invest momentous resources
and capital to bring about a positive change (Shaw et al., 2013). This nding accords with the practices
of Chinioti Sheikh entrepreneurs who, besides their wealth, also dedicate their time and energies to build
universities and educational institutes, healthcare facilities and religious centers; rather than just giving
in charity.
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
An interesting addition to the ndings is the disclosure of unethical practices that ethical entrepreneurs
are forced to do such as paying bribe or extortion money to government ocials or maa groups to
sustain their business or get an administrative task done. Although amusing, it is not surprising as Pakistan
Corruption Report indicates a high corruption risk in the country and a severe obstacle to businesses in
general (The Risk & Compliance Portal, 2017). Such a dysfunctional environment can hinder business
success as many entrepreneurs would go through the torturous dilemma of either compromising their
values or their business.
Although the authors commenced the study in search for a dierent kind of result, the ndings took a
new course of direction on its own. The authors hoped to learn the secret of success from the business
community of Chinioti Sheikhs and generalize the ndings to larger population of entrepreneurs, the
study unearthed a plethora of gems that the authors investigated.
The Chinioti Sheikhs are successful because they follow a sophisticated system comprising of words of
wisdom from their elders along with training, network of religious beliefs, and a value system sitting on
ethics and morality. Moreover, the upbringing and an organized apprenticeship program helps shape
their business acumen. Thus, they grow up with personality ingrained with leadership skills, creativity,
and business insights. It is this combination of their value-infused personality and entrepreneurial
mindset that becomes the ultimate driver of success of their business. Hence, to answer the question if
entrepreneurial mindset is enough, then it certainly is not. Is this business model conned to Chinioti
Sheikhs only and whether an entrepreneur from a nonfamily business learn nothing from it? The focus
group discussion contradicts it.
Hence, although an entrepreneur who does not come from an entrepreneurial family may face a
dierent environment at home, they may have a certain philosophy and business model that may orient
their direction into entrepreneurial action. In case their actions are absent from it, the framework can
3C Empresa. Investigación y pensamiento crítico. ISSN: 2254-3376 Ed. 47 Vol. 10 N.º 3 Agosto - Noviembre 2021
act as a model to follow as one learns that values are as signicant as strategy building, thus the heart
and the mind. Finally, the study presents a conceptual framework that contains factors like business
philosophy, (strong desire for) philanthropy, business rules or principles (learnt from elders), business
model (comprising sub-factors, delegation, decentralization, diversication, and stakeholders’ interests),
personality traits, and entrepreneurial mindset (comprising sub-factors, opportunity, strategic focus,
strategies and innovation, and foresight and decision-making).
Since the study is purely exploratory in nature, it oers an array of opportunities for empirical advances.
Moreover, since the study is rst of its kind in its attempt to do an in-depth study of the entrepreneurial
practices of a prominent business community in Pakistan, further studies can be pursued in this direction.
For example, a comparative study can be done between entrepreneurs coming from entrepreneurial
family background versus non-entrepreneurial background to compare and contrast the dierence in
their business approach and perception of success. Likewise, a comparative study on the business model
of Chinioti Sheikh community and other business communities such as Memon and Agha Khanis can
be carried out to investigated.
The study can also be advanced using other methods within qualitative domain such as interviews of
successful entrepreneurs to get their accounts and perception about the framework and the results of
the study. On the other hand, a quantitative approach can be taken to understand success. A primary
work can be done on further enhancement and testing of the framework put forward in this study as well
as developing a theory of entrepreneurial success. Thus, theory building could be done after soliciting
data from a larger sample. Furthermore, the study can be replicated in other cities of Pakistan and even
outside the country for an enriched conceptualization.
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