Dilyara Marsovna Sadykova
Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.
Tatiana Yakovlevna Zaglyadkina
Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.
Olga Valerevna Akimova
Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.
Alya Nailevna Zaripova
Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.
Recepción: 05/08/2019 Aceptación: 09/09/2019 Publicación: 23/10/2019
Citación sugerida:
Sadykova, D.M., Zaglyadkina, T.Y., Akimova, O.V. y Zaripova, A.N. (2019). The
concept “student” in the Russian and German linguocultures. 3C TIC. Cuadernos
de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. Edición Especial, Octubre 2019, 72-89. doi: https://doi.
Suggested citation:
Sadykova, D.M., Zaglyadkina, T.Y., Akimova, O.V. & Zaripova, A.N. (2019). The
concept “student” in the Russian and German linguocultures. 3C TIC. Cuadernos
de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. Special Issue, October 2019, 72-89. doi: https://doi.
3C TIC. Cuadernos de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. ISSN: 2254-6529
The research rationale for the problem under study is in the profound changes
which happened recently in Russia and aected the educational sphere and
inuenced the development of the Russian language, in particular the activisation
of the metaphorical statements use processes in academic discourse. The purpose
of the article lies in consideration of metaphorical diuseness of the academic
concept “Student” in the Russian and German linguocultures. The leading method
in this research is the analysis of metaphorical diuseness of the above-mentioned
concept on the basis of the analysis of lexical units of full text databases of the
German and Russian media, ction, and Internet communication. As a result of
the performed analysis it was revealed that in language picture of the world the
appeal to the concept “Student” is quite popular. The gurative component of the
concept is clearly expressed. But for language consciousness the most relevant is
the German concept as its extra-zone includes some associations which were not
found in the Russian language picture of the world.
The material of the article can be useful in Lexicology of the German and
Russian languages, in training courses on cross-cultural communication, regional
geography and linguistic and cultural studies of Russia and Germany, in practice
of the Russian and German academic communication.
Language, Linguistics, Student, Concept, Higher education, Analysis, Lexeme.
Edición Especial Special Issue Octubre 2019
At present in the era of globalization we are all witnesses and participants of the
process of interpenetration and interaction of dierent cultures, which is naturally
reected in the language changes (Kalegina, Takhtarova, & Zaglyadkina, 2015).
The profound changes which occurred recently in Russia aected all spheres of
social, political and economic development and engaged the educational sphere as
well. Public changes of this sort inuence development of language, in particular
they intensify processes of the use of metaphorical expressions in the academic
The metaphor is one of the most widespread ways of lexical and also phraseological
replenishment of language stock (Golshtejn & Kerimov, 2008). The intensity of
functioning of any concept is expressed in the sum of its two indicators – the
nominative density and metaphorical diuseness (Sly`shkin, 2004). Metaphorical
expressions reect the ideas of modern Russian reality and also form this
representation (Shhurina, 2008). According to Lako and Johnson the metaphor
penetrates all our everyday life and are intergrated not only in language, but also
in thought and action (Lako & Dzhonson, 1990). In the research of metaphorical
expressions, the attention focuses, rst of all, on how this phenomenon is used in
the course of human communication (Kubryakova, 2004). Meanwhile, each language
has inner peculiarities which challenge its learners along with its native speakers (Babenko, 2015).
In Russian and German linguocultures there are academic conceptual spheres
which are manifested in the language system, in the associative and verbal network
and in the communicative process, have national specic features and are amenable
to a comparative linguistic research. The concept entering the academic sphere of
concepts is the concept “Student”.
3C TIC. Cuadernos de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. ISSN: 2254-6529
In the research the following problems were being solved: 1) the analysis of
metaphorical diuseness of the concept “Student” on the basis of consideration
of lexical units in full text databases of the German and Russian media, ction,
Internet communication; 2) the determination of similarities and dierences in the
concept “Student” manifestation in the German and Russian the linguocultures; 3)
the analysis of the obtained results.
The conducted analysis is based on the principles of linguoculturological approach.
The following methods were used:
Theoretical the analysis of the concept “Student” metaphorical diuseness
examples collected from various sources, analysis and generalisation of the
conceptual description experience, synthesis;
Empirical – comparison of the lexical units having metaphorical potential in
the German and Russian the linguocultures and their interpretation.
The full text databases of the German and Russian media, Internet communication
and ction were research material. The text fragments which contain the
metaphorical expressions based on the academic concept “Student” became the
units of the research.
Edición Especial Special Issue Octubre 2019
1. The concept “Student” found its embodiment in the metaphorical expression
вечный студент. On the one hand the students who study many years in a
higher education institution, but owing to their laziness cannot possibly nish
their study are called this way (3)-(4). And on the other hand it is people who
have insuperable desire to study, nishing one educational institution, they come
to another, constantly craving new goals achievement (1)-(2).
The concept “Student” extrazone includes the following associations:
• вечный студент thirst for knowledge:
(1) - Натали не только знаменитая не по годам актриса, но и вечный
студент. Не в том смысле, что не может сдать экзамены и перейти на
другой курс. Наоборот, девушка обуреваема жаждой знаний. Гарварда
ей не хватило, и недавно она поступила в Иерусалимский университет
(Komsomolskaya Pravda). Я вечный студент и мне не стыдно. Я давно
понял, что учиться намного интереснее, чем ходить на работу (https://
(2) Наконец в коридоре на него навалился, как медведь, Павел Иванович
Мамаев, «вечный студент», уже не очень молодой, грузный, успевший
побывать и в Юрьевском и в Варшавском университетах (Pavel Nilin.
“Interestnaya zhizn”).
3C TIC. Cuadernos de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. ISSN: 2254-6529
• вечный студент poor performance:
(3) – Один из экзаменов бедолаге пришлось сдавать аж с восьмого захода.
Когда он, набив шпорами карманы, в очередной раз отправился на
экзекуцию в альма-матер, зловредный препод заставил его вытряхнуть
их на стол. Оставив «вечного студента» наедине с чистым листом
бумаги, вышел из аудитории (Trud).
(4) В конце концов «вечный студент» получил-таки диплом заочника
пединститута по специальности русский язык и литература (Trud).
The concept “Student” extrazone extends due to the formation of new bonds in it.
So, the association “thirst for knowledge” is connected with the association “age”
that is evident from the examples (1) and (2).
• вечный студент life expectancy:
(5) Если не загружать мозг работой, старческое слабоумие обеспечено.
Поэтому долгожительэто вечный студент, он обречен постоянно
воспринимать и перерабатывать новую информацию (Trud).
It is necessary to train the brain to process information constantly not to become
a senile person in old age. It is proved that people of brainwork die of strokes
less often. So the person caring for his health has to turn into “вечный (lifelong)
2. Also certain appearance is a characteristic of the student that is reected in
the language picture of the world. A large number of examples in the Russian
linguoculture is associated with the metaphorical expression “студенческий
Edición Especial Special Issue Octubre 2019
(6) – Почему-то в левом верхнем углу зала публика сидела довольно
плотно: слева парочка хрустела и жевала, справа допивали пиво, а
сзади расположилась большая компания студенческого вида, тоже
с пакетами и с банками, в веселом, приподнятом настроении. (N.
Ryazantseva. “Kultpohod v kino”).
(7) Помню, тогда этот скромно одетый, студенческого вида парень,
высокий, худой, с бетховенской шевелюрой, принес Виталию
Ивановичу какой-то свой пейзаж (Muslim Magomayev. “Lyubov moya –
The metaphorical expression “студенческий вид is implemented in several
associations: age, appearance, behavior. In terms of appearance young people can
be divided into two groups: either those who give little attention to the appearance,
or those who are very concerned about the latest fashion. In their company, they
often do not pay attention to conventions of society and live in the student’s world.
1. The concept “Student” in the German linguoculture has more expanded
metaphorical diuseness. The metaphorical expression “ein ewiger Student”
spread over the following associations expanding the concept borders. It is
necessary to emphasize the following:
• ein ewiger Student poor performance:
(8) – Swen Ritter war ein ewiger Student, der es einfach nicht schate, sein Studium der
Wirtschaftsinformatik an der TU Ilmenau abzuschließen (Internet site SpeedProject).
(9) – Schon in Venedig spielte man auf verschiedene soziale Schichten an, die man alle
ansprechen wollte. Die komischen Figuren dürfen reichlich Subversives von sich geben. Es
gibt immer einen Hauptkomiker, bei uns ein ewiger Student. Der nie sein Diplom macht,
weil er lieber säuft als studiert (Welt online).
3C TIC. Cuadernos de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. ISSN: 2254-6529
Considering that the German educational system does not provide accurate
time frames for the graduation from a higher education institution, it is poor
performance that does not allow the German students to nish studies in an
educational institution.
• ein ewiger Student thirst for knowledge:
(10)– Der Ex-Creed und jetzt Alter Bridge Gitarrist Mark Tremonti gab dem US Magazin
«Guitar» ein Interview, dass speziell für Gitarrenfreaks sehr interessant sein dürfte. Der
Mann am Schlagbrett erzählt von seiner Teсhnik, dem Klang und das er ewiger Student
seiner eigenen Gitarre geworden ist (Welt online).
(11) – Der vielseitigste Musiker unserer Zeit feierte im Juni seinen sechzigsten Geburtstag
David Geringas. Andere Menschen denken in dem Alter an den Ruhestand, doch der
Ausnahme-Cellist sagt von sich: «Ich bin ein ewiger Student. Ich habe immer das Gefühl,
dass etwas beginnt». So ist er ständig auf der Suche nach neuen Eindrücken, Aufgaben
und Herausforderungen (Internet site
• ein ewiger Student bashfulness:
(12) – Ich bin Dian Keto, 27 Jahre, komme aus dem kühlen Norden. Bin hier Student und
ich sag euch, dass ist’ ne echt geile Zeit. Doch leider bin ich nächstеs Jahr fertig und muss
aufgrund der Arbeitssituation aus dem schönen meerumschlungenen Bundesland weg. Ich
möchte nicht, dass ihr denkt ich wär ein ewiger Student aufgrund meines fortgeschrittenen
Alters. War vorher 4 Jahre Soldat (Stuttgarter Nachrichten online).
While, for example, in France or in England and also in Russia students graduate
from a higher educational institution at 22-23 and begin to work, in Germany it
happens approximately at 27-28. It is possible to notice that this fact is reected in
the German linguoculture where the metaphorical expression “ein ewiger Student”
has a little negative shade of meaning. In example (12) it is possible to see that the
young man feels uncomfortable that he leaves the walls of the university at 27.
ein ewiger Student traits of character:
Edición Especial Special Issue Octubre 2019
(13) – Er sieht aus und wirkt wie ein ewiger Student, sehr sympathish und immer freundlich
(Welt online).
(14) Der Mitbewohner ist sehr ein ruhiger Mensch, man sieht und hört ihn kaum, ein sog.
alter verkrachter ewiger Student… (Welt online).
In the German linguoculture there has been created a certain image of ein ewiger
(lifelong) Student” which is justied in language by a large number of adjectives with
an evaluating component as, for example, in (13) – (16):
(15) Philippe ist schüchtern, weltfremd, verträumt. Ein ewiger Student, der wiewohl gut
einiges über dreißig Jahre als noch immer an einer verschrobenen Dissertation über den
Weltraumpionier Ziolkowski werkelt und noch immer bei seiner Mutter wohnt (Интернет
– сайт
(16) Er ist ein ewiger Student, gut organisiert, dem allerdings die Lebenserfahrung fehlt
(Welt online).
The image of “ein ewiger Student” is characterised by such adjectives as nice,
friendly, quiet, timid, fanciful, well organized. Comparing these two metaphorical
expressions in the two linguocultures, it should be noted that the number of the
adjectives carrying any assessment in the Russian linguoculture is much fewer. It is
possible to note the following adjectives: не молодой, грузный, скромно одетый.
In the German linguoculture the traits of character of “ein ewiger Student” are
more evaluated, and in the Russian – age data.
• ein ewiger Student money
Concerning dicult nancial circumstances of the students in the German
linguoculture there are many jokes as, for example, in (17):
(17) – Ein ewiger Student fragt den anderen: «Sag mal, wie machst du das eigentlich, wovon
lebst du?» - «Ich schreibe!» - « Oh, interessant, und was schreibst du?» fragt der erste.
«Briefe, nach Hause, dass ich Geld brauche!» (Internet site
3C TIC. Cuadernos de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. ISSN: 2254-6529
The “ein ewiger” students characterised not only by dicult nancial circumstances,
but also by aspiration to improve their nancial position and also by ingenuity
in earning money. They try to solve a nancial problem together. It is seen in
examples (18) and (19).
(18) – Van Wilder, ewiger Student und cooler Campuskцnig von Coolidge College hat ein
Problem, als ihm sein Vater den Scheck streicht. Der wilde Wilder macht kurzerhand sein
Hobby zum Beruf und organisiert Parties gegen Geld. «Nimm das Leben nicht so ernst»,
lautet seine Devise (Stuttgarter Nachrichten online).
(19) – Ich war ein sogenannter ewiger Student. Zusammen mit Freunden habe ich Kabarett
gemacht und hatte eine Theatergruppe, um an Geld zu kommen (Jaap van Leeuwen.
Portrait: Paul Dijkstra aus Utrecht – Wie ein Ideal gebrauchsfähig wird).
The examples of the same kind were not found in the Russian linguoculture.
• ein ewiger Student appearance
(20) – Er wirkt wie ein ewiger Student. Nickelbrille, zerknittertes Leinensakko, Jeans, bequeme
Straßentreter (Berliner Kurier).
(21) – Daniel Bielenstein ist rein äußerlich der Typ «ewiger Student» oder Referendar.
Der Bartträger hat listig-lüstige braune Augen hinter einer Hornbrille. Das schüttere
Haar ist intellektuellenmäßig zauselig unfriesiert. Zum braunen Allwetterschuh trägt
er in diesen Schmuddeltagen eine beige Cordhose, darüber ein dunkelblaues Hemd zum
anthrazitfarbenen Jackett Modepäpste wie Armani und Co. wären entsetzt (Welt
The “ein ewiger Student” is characterised by negligence in clothes. It is comfort
that is in the rst place, and only then fashion comes. In the Russian linguoculture
students either adhere to fashion, or do not pay any attention to it.
Edición Especial Special Issue Octubre 2019
2. The concept is the subject of continuous dynamic development which is
inuenced by the environment in which it interacts with other concepts. One
association which is lacunary for the Russian culture is characteristic of the
German linguoculture. The concept “Student” is connected with the concept
“Car”. Similar examples were not found in the Russian culture.
(22) – Das neue KA- Sondermodell «Student» soll ab sofort mit einem Listenpreis von rund
8000 Euro аngeboten werden. (Süddeutsche Zeitung).
(23) Schnell haben die Kölner aus dem Kleinwagen KA das Sondermodell «Student» gestrickt.
(Welt online).
3. The concept “Student” served as a basis for metaphorical meaning of
Studentenfutter (Futter a forage (for the cattle), fodder; in colloquial language
food). In the German linguoculture Studentenfutter is associated with several
options of this metaphorical expression use.
• Studentenfutter food:
(24) Studentenfutter ist ein idealer Pausensnack für Schule, Sport und Büro. Biologische
Nüsse und Trockenfrüchte werden gemäß EU-Bio-Verordnung nicht mit chemischen oder
synthetischen Mitteln behandelt. (Интернет-сайт
Usually packets of nuts with raisins mixed with various dried fruits are called
Studentenfutter. They are in great demand among school and university students.
Most likely, the popularity of this product is caused, rst of all, by its low price and
high caloric content.
• Studentenfutter – cheap and quickly cooked food:
(25) – Keinen Plan, was Ihr essen sollt? Mensa zu? Geld (fast) alle? In Cat’ s ultimativem
Studentenkochbuch ndet Ihr Studentenfutter pur: von der Vorspeise über Salate,
Hauptgerichte, Desserts sowie Partyrezepte und vieles mehr doch vor allem schnell,
einfach und dem chronischen Geldmangel studentischer Portemonnaies angemessen.
(Internet site Geizkragen).
3C TIC. Cuadernos de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. ISSN: 2254-6529
(26) Dieses Gericht habe ich noch in Deutschland zubereitet, aus Zeitmangel habe ich es
immer nicht aufgeladen. Da ich nun keine Studentin mehr bin, wird meine Studentenfutter-
Serie nächste Woche mit dem 6. Rezept enden. (Internet site Yahoo 360°).
As students always lack for money and time, it is extremely important for them that
the process of cooking should be quick and cheap.
• Studentenfutter nance
In this context Studentenfutter means, most likely, one of type of monetary investments
into study,
In this context of Studentenfutter means, most likely, one of types of the monetary
investments into study oered by local division of nancial institution.
(27) – Studieren ohne Geldsorgen? Unser Studentenfutter× macht’
s möglich! Mit unserem Studentenfutter× sichern Sie sich auf einen Schlag
viele Vorteile, um sich voll und ganz auf Ihr Studium konzentrieren zu können. Sehen
Sie selbst und vereinbaren Sie gleich einen Termin mit uns, denn wir garantieren mehr
Studienerfolg durch mehr nanzielle Beweglichkeit! (Advertisement from Sparkasse
4. It should be also noted the enrichment of the concept “Student” extra-zone
due to the meaning transfer of the word functioning in the language several
centuries ago to the modern linguoculture. Since the time of F. Schiller in the
German language picture of the world the expression “Brotstudenten” is common
(Brot – bread).
(28) – Ich genieße es, mit einem Dutzend Studenten in der Uni zu sitzen, der Professorin zu
lauschen und angeregte Debatte zu führen. Ich mag mittlerweile sogar klassische Literatur
und Klaviermusik. Ich bin kein Brotstudent, wie Schiller diejenigen nannte, die nur für
ein «Amt» lernen und nicht mit den Wissenschaften «den Geist nur als Geist vergnügen»
(Meine Welt im Ranzen.
Edición Especial Special Issue Octubre 2019
(29) – Von unbeliebten Jammerprofessoren, Brotstudenten und philosophischen Köpfen: über
das ewige Scheitern der Hochschule ( Süddeutsche Zeitung).
Recently expression of “Brotstudenten” became especially relevant in the light of the
last transformations in the educational sphere in Europe. Still the debate on the
Bologna program which entered uniform educational standards across the whole
Europe continues. According to many the Bologna system turns all who begin their
studies into the so-called Brotstudenten as they can be content only with the bachelor
degree focused on a profession without research activities, merely learning what is
given. But how in a year, having received the master’s degree, they will be able to
become those “philosophische Köpfe”, nobody knows.
A huge number of works is devoted to dierent researches of concepts and
approaches to concept study are various. The concept is one of the most
variously interpreted terms. In domestic linguistic researches the conceptual and
culturological trends are of importance and have interdistsiplinarny character. In
this regard it is necessary to consider the following authors’ theories in concept
study: Yu.S. Stepanov, A. Vezhbitskaya, N.D. Arutyunova, Yu.D. Apresyan, V.I.
Karasik, G.G. Slyshkin, etc.
The analysis of the concept “Student” metaphorical diuseness showed that the
appeal to it is quite relevant both in the Russian and German linguocultures. The
gurative component is most brightly expressed in the concept. For language
consciousness the most relevant is the German concept as its extrazone includes
such associations as food, money which were not found in the Russian language
picture of the world.
3C TIC. Cuadernos de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. ISSN: 2254-6529
The academic concept “Student” considered by the authors had not been analysed
earlier. The scientic novelty of this research lies in the analysis of metaphorical
diuseness of the given concept and obtaining the corresponding results allow us
to summarize the following.
The student is an integral part of the educational process. Education, in turn,
is one of the most important functions of culture as it provides its preservation
and development (Bessarabova, 2007). In the context of the general paradigm
of education, according to scientists of many countries, “education is a part of
culture” (Bruner, 1996). And as the concept represents “cultural formation of the
mental nature” with conceptual, gurative and valuable components (Karasik,
2002), we can tell that in a language picture of the world there was the next image
of the “Student”: The student in the Russian linguoculture is a slight young man
who is not caring for the appearance, or on the contrary, accurately following
fashion trends. This is a person of cheerful nature and high spirits. The student in
the German linguoculture is a young man of 24-27, of normal constitution, often
wearing spectacles, with a small beard, characterised by negligence in clothes, is
unpretentious in food where, for whom simplicity and small price are the most
important for it. The student is rather poor, but he aspires to earn money.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of
Kazan Federal University.
Edición Especial Special Issue Octubre 2019
Kalegina, T.E, Takhtarova, S.S, & Zaglyadkina, T.Y. (2015). Denglish and
Franglais in the framework of the modern European linguistic landscape.
Journal of Language and Literature, 6(3), 195-198.
Golshtejn, E.A., & Kerimov, R. D. (2008). Konczeptual`ny`e metafory` v
idiostile J.Rau. Lingvistika. Germenevtika. Konczeptologiya. Kemerovo:
Kemerovskij poligracheskij kombinat, 700 s., s.211
Sly`shkin, G.G. (2004). Lingvokul`turny`e konczepty` i metakonczepty`.
Volgograd, Peremena, 340 s., s. 53
Shhurina, Yu. V. (2008). Komicheskaya metafora v sovremennom rossijskom
media-diskurse. Lingvistika. Germenevtika. Konczeptologiya. Kemerovo:
Kemerovskij poligracheskij kombinat, 700 s., s.247
Lako, D., & Dzhonson, M. (1990). Metafory`, kotory`mi my` zhivem.//
Teoriya metafory`: Sb. statej/Pod redakcziej N.D. Arutyunovoj.-Progress,
Kubryakova, E. S. (2004). Yazy`k i znanie. M:, Yazy`ki slavyanskoj kul`tury`.
Babenko, O. V. (2015). Language as a basic feature of ethnos uniting within
the conditions of modern challenges, 6, 168-170. Retrieved from https://
Bessarabova, I.S. (2007). Polikul`turny`j podkhod kak tendencziya razvitiya
sovremennogo obrazovaniya. Menyayushhayasya kommunikacziya v
menyayushhemsya mire: sb. statej / otv. red. G.G. Sly`shkin. Volgograd:
FGOU VPO «Volgogradskaya akademiya gosudarstvennoj sluzhby`».
Volgograd: Izd-vo FGOU VPO VAGSb s.132
3C TIC. Cuadernos de desarrollo aplicados a las TIC. ISSN: 2254-6529
Bruner, J. S. (1996). The culture of Education. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press.
Karasik, V. I. (2002). Yazy`kovoj krug: lichnost`, konczepty`. Diskurs.
Volgograd, Peremena.
Edición Especial Special Issue Octubre 2019